After the Soviet withdrawal, many Afghan Communists had rebranded themselves as Islamists and joined the mujahedeen.
I was living near the Twin Towers on 9/11, so I saw the attacks, and I had friends who were killed in the attacks.
If night raids and detentions are an unavoidable part of modern counterinsurgency warfare, then so is the resentment they breed.
Never short of guns and guerrillas, Afghanistan has proven fertile ground for a host of insurgent groups in addition to the Taliban.
Seen through the eyes of a U.S. soldier, Afghanistan is a scary place.
In the summer of 2004, Malem Jan was sitting with Sirajuddin Haqqani, the second son of Jalaluddin, in their Pakistani base in the North Waziristan town of Miram Shah when they heard their names on the BBC. The Americans were offering $250,000 and $200,000, respectively, as rewards for information leading to their capture.